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While evolutionary biologists were fashioning the Modern Synthesis, geneticists around the world searched furiously for the molecules that carried genetic information.

They knew that cells contained several different types of molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

If this is correct, the cytochrome c of all mammals should be equally different from the cytochrome c of all birds.

Since fish diverges from the main stem of vertebrate evolution earlier than either birds or mammals, the cytochrome c of both mammals and birds should be equally different from the cytochrome c of fish.

The results favour a phylogeny consisting of five major clades forming successive sister taxa to the rest of Neoaves, and do not support two recently proposed Neoavian clades — Columbea and Passerea — as natural groups.

It is sometimes called a gene clock or an evolutionary clock.

The notion of the existence of a so-called "molecular clock" was first attributed to Émile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling who, in 1962, noticed that the number of amino acid differences in hemoglobin between different lineages changes roughly linearly with time, as estimated from fossil evidence.

Although reconstruction of the phylogeny of living birds has progressed tremendously in the last decade, the evolutionary history of Neoaves—a clade that encompasses nearly all living bird species—remains the greatest unresolved challenge in dinosaur systematics. Hist.&volume=286&spage=1&epage=179&date=2004&atitle=Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of&sid=nature: Nature"3.0.

Here we investigate avian phylogeny with an unprecedented scale of data: 390,000 bases of genomic sequence data from each of 198 species of living birds, representing all major avian lineages, and two crocodilian outgroups. CO;2-B&rft_id=info:pmid/10580989&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.genre=article&rft.aulast=Benton&rft.aufirst=M. J.&rft.jtitle=Bioessays&rft.volume=21&rft.spage=1043&rft.epage=1051&rft.date=1999&rft.atitle=Early origins of modern birds and mammals: molecules vs.

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